THE HISTORY OF VLADIVOSTOK FORTRESS
Bezymiannaya battery is one of the oldest fortifications of Vladivostok Fortress.
Smoothbore guns were placed on Bezymiannaya mound in 1862 and section was quartered. Mound got the name “Batareinaya”. Battery was constructed in 1880-1882 in wood-ground variant by military engineer captain Shirokov. Battery was equipped with 9-inches and 11-inches of 1867 type coastal cannons. It was reconstructed in concrete variant in 1897 – 1900 by military engineer captain Yakubovskiy. The equipment of the battery consisted of nine 9-inches coastal cannons and four 57-mm. rapid-firing Nordenfeld guns.
After building of powerful batteries on Russkiy Island in 1909 – 1914, Bezymiannaya battery has lost the battle value.
Battery was disarmed in 1923, partly destroyed in 30-th and used as car repair plant. During the World War Two there was position of anti aircraft guns of Pacific Navy.
Two cannons yards, two bunked traverses on the main caliber block, a position of two 57-mm guns on the right side of battery and command-range-finder post were destroyed in 70-th.
P.F. Unterberger was head of engineering part of Eastern-Siberian military region. In 1878 he visited main strategically points - Nikolaevsk-on-Amur and Vladivostok according to order of Command. He worked out very important suggestions, which were devoted to the strengthening of these points and building coastal batteries. He suggested supply the modern artillery systems, built strong permanent defensive fortifications, which would be ensuring of circle defense of the town and concentrate in it big garrison with compliantly stocks. Such away P.F. Unterberger is the founder of Vladivostok fortress. In 1889 the Kaiser-flag was hoisted on Goldobinskaya battery. Since this year the official history of the fortress began.
The project of first permanent land surrounding (second line of defense) of Vladivostok fortress was worked out in 1899 under the lead of famous Russian professor, Colonel K.I. Velichko. Military minister infantry General A.N. Khuropatkin toughly set the common direct of defensive line. It passed from Amurskiy to Ussuriyskiy gulf throw peninsula of Muraviev-Amurskiy on the distance 3-5 km. from Golden Horn bay.
It consisted of uninterrupted moat and rampart with strong points.
Coastal batteries defended sea approaches to Vladivostok. They were made, as a rule, in permanent variant: concrete breastwork and traverses between gun yards with shelters for soldiers and ammunition. The third hall is devoted to the building of first land defensive line of 1899 project and Russian - Japanese war.
Fortifications of second line of defense of Vladivostok fortress are interesting because fortifications like these were built in Port Arthur (Lu-Shun).
February 22, 1904 Japanese squadron led by rear admiral Kamimura came to Vladivostok and had fired town by about 200 missiles. This bombardment displayed errors, which were committed during the building of defensive line of 1899.
New plan of building of Vladivostok fortifications was worked out, taking into account the defense of Port Arthur. General - major A.P. Shoshin led by the building of main line of defense of 1910 project. This line crossed the peninsula of Muraviev - Amurskiy on the distance 15 - 20 km. from Golden Horn bay. And it consisted of strong points - forts.
Forts of 1910 project had a lot of underground casemated galleries. The thick of walls were about 4 m. It gives the defense during the bombardment by 420 - mm. cannons.
Vladivostok fortress had a lot of casemated underground powder-magazines, casemated cold store, broad network of roads, airdromes, hangar for dirigible, a lot of shelters, church. All of these permitted to withstand a siege in the most unfavorable conditions.
The typical permanent fortifications of coastal defense of Vladivostok fortress - are coastal batteries and anti landing caponiers. Coastal batteries were built on the coast and were intended for averting of landed of enemy and for defense of fortress. Anti landed caponiers were intended for disparagement of landing beaches
In 30th the coastal defensive line of Pacific Fleet was created. These constructions were reliable shield for Far East. The part of fortifications of Vladivostok fortress was included in system of defensive constructions.
According to Stalin`s order, under the leadership of Voroshilov, battery ¹981, one of the strongest sea battery in the world, was built on Russkiy island in 30th of XX cent.
Until 1996 this battery had been adopted in Pacific Fleet. Since 1998 - branch of a museum of Pacific Fleet.
Last military operation of the World War Two began on August 18, 1945.
It was Kuril Landing operation. The common guiding of operation was carried out by the Commander of Pacific fleet, admiral I. Iumashev. Khuril operation finished on September 1, 1945. September 2, 1945 the Japanese command has signed the act about capitulation. World War Two was officially completed.
At the end of 1969, taking into account political instability in the relations with China, the Soviet government has made a decision about creation of Vladivostok defensive region, which task was the protection of city and principal basis of Pacific Fleet in case of probable battle operations. In the common system of Vladivostok defensive region were included some fortifications of Vladivostok Fortress. In the beginning of 90th of XX cent. Vladivostok defensive region had all necessaries for defense of Vladivostok. At the end of 1993 Vladivostok defensive region under the decision of government of country was abolished.